An Example - Maven Repository Format
Maven developers are familiar with the concept of a repository, since repositories are used by default. The primary type of a binary component in a Maven format repository is a JAR file containing Java byte-code. This is due to the Java background of Maven and the fact that the default component type is a JAR. Practically however, there is no limit to what type of component can be stored in a Maven repository. For example, you can easily deploy WAR or EAR files, source archives, Flash libraries and applications, Android archives or applications or Ruby libraries to a Maven repository.
Every software component is described by an XML document called a Project Object Model (POM). This POM contains information that describes a project and lists a project’s dependencies — the binary software components, which a given component depends upon for successful compilation or execution.
When Maven downloads a component like a dependency or a plugin from a repository, it also downloads that component’s POM. Given a component’s POM, Maven can then download any other components that are required by that component.
Maven and other tools, such as Ivy or Gradle, which interact with a Maven repository to search for binary software components, model the projects they manage and retrieve software components on-demand from a repository.
The Central Repository
When you download and install Maven without any customization, it retrieves components from the Central Repository. It serves millions of Maven users every single day. It is the default, built-in repository using the Maven repository format and is managed by Sonatype. Statistics about the size of the Central Repository are available at https://search.maven.org/stats.
The Central Repository is the largest repository for Java-based components. It can be easily used from other build tools as well. You can look at the Central Repository as an example of how Maven repositories operate and how they are assembled. Here are some of the properties of release repositories such as the Central Repository:
All software components added to the Central Repository require proper metadata, including a Project Object Model (POM) for each component that describes the component itself and any dependencies that software component might have.
Once published to the Central Repository, a component and the metadata describing that component never change. This property of a release repository, like the Central Repository, guarantees that projects that depend on releases will be repeatable and stable over time. While new software components are being published every day, once a component is assigned a release number on the Central Repository, there is a strict policy against modifying the contents of a software component after a release.
The Central Repository contains cryptographic hashes and PGP signatures that can be used to verify the authenticity and integrity of software components served and supports connections in a secure manner via HTTPS.
The Central Repository is exposed to the users globally via a high performance content delivery network of servers.
In addition to the Central Repository, there are a number of major organizations, such as Red Hat, Oracle or the Apache Software foundation, which maintain separate additional repositories. Best practice to facilitate these available repositories is to install Nexus Repository Manager OSS or Nexus Repository Manager Pro and use it to proxy and cache the contents on your own network.
Component Coordinates and the Repository Format
Component coordinates create a unique identifier for a component. Maven coordinates use the following values: groupId, artifactId, version, and packaging. This set of coordinates is often referred to as a GAV coordinate, which is short for Group, Artifact, Version coordinate. The GAV coordinate standard is the foundation for Maven’s ability to manage dependencies. Four elements of this coordinate system are described below:
A group identifier groups a set of components into a logical group. Groups are often designed to reflect the organization under which a particular software component is being produced. For example, software components being produced by the Maven project at the Apache Software Foundation are available under the groupId
An artifactId is an identifier for a software component and should be a descriptive name. The combination of groupId and artifactId must be unique for a specific project.
The version of a project ideally follows the established convention of semantic versioning. For example, if your simple-library component has a major release version of
1, a minor release version of
2 and point release version of
3, your version would be
1.2.3. Versions can also have alphanumeric qualifiers which are often used to denote release status. An example of such a qualifier would be a version like "1.2.3-BETA" where BETA signals a stage of testing meaningful to consumers of a software component.
Maven was initially created to handle JAR files, but a Maven repository is completely agnostic about the type of component it is managing. Packaging can be anything that describes any binary software format including: zip, nar, war, ear, sar and aar.
Tools designed to interact Maven repositories translate component coordinates into a URL which corresponds to a location in a Maven repository. If a tool such as Maven is looking for version
1.2.0 of the
commons-lang JAR in the group
org.apache.commons, this request is translated into:
Maven also downloads the corresponding POM for
commons-lang 1.2.0 from:
This POM may contain references to other components, which are then retrieved from the same repository using the same URL patterns.
Release and Snapshot Repositories
A Maven repository stores two types of components: releases and snapshots. Release repositories are for stable, static release components. Snapshot repositories are frequently updated repositories that store binary software components from projects under constant development.
While it is possible to create a repository which serves both release and snapshot components, repositories are usually segmented into release or snapshot repositories serving different consumers and maintaining different standards and procedures for deploying components. Much like the difference between networks, a release repository is considered like a production network and a snapshot repository is more like a development or a testing network. While there is a higher level of procedure and ceremony associated with deploying to a release repository, snapshot components can be deployed and changed frequently without regard for stability and repeatability concerns.
The two types of components managed by a repository manager are:
A release component is a component which was created by a specific, versioned release. For example, consider the
1.2.0 release of the
commons-lang library stored in the Central Repository. This release component,
commons-lang-1.2.0.jar, and the associated POM,
commons-lang-1.2.0.pom, are static objects which will never change in the Central Repository. Released components are considered to be solid, stable and perpetual in order to guarantee that builds which depend upon them are repeatable over time. The released JAR component is associated with a PGP signature, an MD5, and a SHA check-sum which can be used to verify both the authenticity and integrity of the binary software component.
Snapshot components are components generated during the development of a software project. A Snapshot component has both a version number such as
1.3 and a time-stamp in its name. For example, a snapshot component for
commons-lang 1.3.0 might have the name
commons-lang-1.3.0.-20090314.182342-1.jar the associated POM, MD5 and SHA hashes would also have a similar name. To facilitate collaboration during the development of software components, Maven and other clients that know how to consume snapshot components from a repository also know how to interrogate the metadata associated with a Snapshot component to retrieve the latest version of a Snapshot dependency from a repository.
A project under active development produces snapshot components that change over time. A release is comprised of components which will remain unchanged over time.
Looking at the Maven repository format and associated concepts and ideas allowed you grasp some of the details and intricacies involved with different tools and repository formats, that will help you appreciate the need for repository management.